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  1. ACF Supports NCI Comparative Melanoma Tumor Board

    Purpose: To bring together expert human and veterinary pathologists to compare and contrast the histologic features and pathobiology of mucosal melanomas in humans and dogs.  By addressing mucosal melanoma in the context of multiple species, the board will seek consensus analysis aimed to further inform progress in melanoma research and to assess the utility of the dog as a preclinical model for mucosal melanomas in people.

    Background: Progress in understanding the pathobiology of melanomas has been painstaking, with limited success in prolonging survival in many clinical cases.  Advances are being aided by emerging knowledge in melanoma genetics, etiology, and therapeutic responses; all of these areas benefit greatly from research in animal models of human melanoma.

    However, current animal models of melanoma are imperfect reflections of the human disease. By comparing the morphology, pathogenesis, and biology of both induced and spontaneous melanomas in multiple species collectively, the board proposes to improve and clarify comparative characterization and classification across these systems and to appraise the utility of each model organism, focusing on the utility of the dog as a model for preclinical trials.

    This type of comparative oncology, addressing pathological disease occurring in the context of multiple species, takes advantage of a diversity in nature to further inform progress in cancer research.

    Objectives: Constitute a Comparative Melanoma Tumor Board to study pathological outcomes of spontaneous melanomas in humans and companion dogs in order to address the following goals:

      • To discuss the evolving fish, and mouse models of melanoma and their applications toward pathogenesis and early drug discovery uses.
      • To compare and contrast histopathologic features of muco-cutaneous melanomas in humans, and dogs
      •  To discuss tumors in humans and dogs in an attempt to enhance communication in collaborative interactions between physician pathologists, veterinary pathologists, and scientific investigators.
      • To discuss the pathobiology involved in the development and metastasis of melanomas in humans and dogs.
      • To evaluate the utility of dog melanomas for different preclinical applications, with an interest in informing the exploration of metastatic models and therapeutics for melanomas in people and dogs.

    Approach: Pathology specimens were sought from a variety of sources including interested biobanks, as well as collaborators and pathologist participants who provided examples of representative lesions in human beings and dogs.  Specimens were made available to all participants for review prior to the consensus meetings.  Specimens were assessed by the board panel of experienced physician and veterinary pathologists using an agreed upon protocol.

    The members of the tumor board participated in multiple telepathology webinar conferences and in two face-to-face meetings at the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, held April 18-20, 2012 and January 11, 2013 during which the panel also met with other veterinary and human oncologists, and melanoma basic and clinical research scientists. (Agendas available: April 2012, January 2013)

    The April meeting’s scientific session included investigator presentations on advances using relevant melanoma models in mice and fish, as well as the clinical behavior and pathobiology of spontaneous melanomas in humans and dogs in order to stimulate examination of the disease from a comparative perspective.

    The primary purpose of the January meeting (“The Dog as Surrogate Clinical Model for Human Malignant Melanoma”) was to discuss and ultimately to form a concensus statement regarding the potential for use of  spontaneous malignant mucosal melanoma in canines as a pre-clinical model for human malignant melanoma. A consensus opinion was formulated in this process and will be published in a scientific, peer reviewed journal.

    Support for this collaboration was provided by the National Cancer Institute, the Canine Comparative Oncology and Genomics Consortium  www.ccogc.net. and the Animal Cancer Foundation http://www.acfoundation.org/.

    NCI Comparative Melanoma Tumor Board Pathologists

    *R. Mark Simpson, D.V.M., Ph.D.

    National Cancer Institute

    Bethesda,  MD

    *Stephen M. Hewitt, M.D.

    National Cancer Institute

    Bethesda, MD

    *Joshua D. Webster, D.V.M., Ph.D.

    Genentech

    San Francisco, CA

    *Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, M.D.

    MD Anderson Cancer Center

    Houston,   TX

    *Joy Gary, D.V.M.

    National Cancer Institute

    Bethesda, MD

    Boris C. Bastian, M.D., Ph.D.

    University of California

    San Francisco, CA

    Marcus W. Bosenberg, M.D., Ph.D.

    Yale   University School of Medicine

    New Haven   , CT

    Barbara J. Davis, V.M.D., Ph.D.

    Davis Toxicologic Pathology Consulting

    Harvard, MA

    D. Glen Esplin, D.V.M., Ph.D.

    ARUP Laboratories, University of Utah

    Salt Lake City, UT

    Michael H. Goldschmidt, B.V.M.S., M.Sc.

    University of   Pennsylvania

    Philadelphia, PA

    Matti Kiupel Dr. Med. Vet, Ph.D.

    Michigan State University

    East Lansing, MI

    Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, M.D., Ph.D.

    National Cancer Insitute

    Bethesda, MD

    Donald J. Meuten, D.V.M., Ph.D.

    North Carolina State University

    Raleigh, NC

    Alfredo Alberto Molinolo, M.D., Ph.D.

    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

    Bethesda, MD

    Andriano Piris, M.D.

    Massachusetts General Hospital

    Harvard Medical School

    Boston, MA

    Manju Prasad, M.D., MBBS                                         Yale University

    New Haven, CT

    Victor G. Prieto, M.D.,  Ph.D.  MD

    Anderson Cancer Center

    University of Texas Houston, TX

    Rebecca C. Smedley, D.V.M., M.S.

    Michigan State University, DCPAH                                               East Lansing, MI

    Miriam Anver, D.V.M.,Ph.D.

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Frederick, MD

    Jerrold M. Ward, D.V.M., Ph.D.             Global VetPathology

    Gaithersburg, MD

        * Tumor board organizers   

  2. A New Understanding of the Cause of Cancer

    You probably learned in school that cancer is caused by the mutation of cells that grow out of control causing tumors.

    This view was first suggested in 1928 and has held pretty fast in the minds of the medical and scientific communities for some 85 years, despite the fact that this mutation theory has been proven true for less than 10 percent of cancers.

    With some cancers, even fewer mutations are associated with their development. For example, only about 1 percent of gastric cancers are caused by mutations, and only 3–5 percent of colon cancers. For breast cancer patients with the BRCA gene, only about 8 percent are caused by mutations of this gene. read more

  3. Measles Vaccine May Wipe Out Cancer

    Future cancer patients may have one very brave woman to thank: A 49-year-old Mayo Clinic patient who suffered from multiple myeloma for about a decade is now cancer-free thanks to a cutting-edge treatment. In an experimental procedure, she received an extremely high dose of the measles vaccine, enough to inoculate 10 million people (!!!). The vaccine was delivered in a single injection through an IV over the course of an hour. Within a week, her tumors started shrinking and within three months she was completely free of the disease. She’s been in remission for about six months. read more